Kirwan Institute’s Research Agenda

The Kirwan Institute strives to provide innovative, compelling and strategic research to both academic audiences and the broader community. Much of the Institute’s research is applied and policy oriented, providing informed direction and assistance to social justice advocates, communities, funders and policy makers. The following provides information on our core strategic initiatives, research, and provides a comprehensive index of recent Institute projects.

The Kirwan Institute supports equitable policy and capacity building through its Opportunity Communities Model. This research model brings an intersectional analysis to focus areas such as housing, education, jobs, transportation, health, and criminal justice We are particularly interested in how Structural Racialization  and Race in Cognition create and sustain barriers to opportunity. Our framework for engagement and capacity building around these sources of inequity include:

  • Policy, Law and Civil Rights research
  • Opportunity Mapping
  • Communications, Field Building and Engagement

Our Opportunity Communities Model advocates for equitable investment in all people and neighborhoods, to improve the health of entire regions.


Structural Racialization

A structural/systems approach is used to investigate the causes and consequences of racial hierarchy and disparity and to develop policy solutions.

Race in Cognition

Refers to how implicit and explicit mental processes – that are both altered by and contribute to racial inequities – affect individuals’ decisions, behaviors, and lived experiences.

Opportunity Mapping

Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas. The purpose of opportunity mapping is to illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities) and to understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities.

Social Determinants of Health

The social determinants of health approach is distinguished by a broad focus on the economic, social, political, and psychological determinants of population health.

Civic Engagement

Describes the practices, principles and socioeconomic conditions that comprise the environment in which people interact with their community and come together to make and implement community decisions that provide justice and opportunity for all community members.

Opportunity Communities Model


Complete Research Listing

Below is a comprehensive list of Kirwan research reports. For specific report requests, please contact Jamaal Bell at

Black Male Achievements

The Geography of Opportunity: Mapping to Advance Racial and Social Equity in Portland, OR

Mapping Child Well-being in Duval County, FL

Research Domain: Race in the Mind

A Quick Look at Standardized Testing and Stereotype Threat

Growing Together for a Sustainable Future: Strategies and Best Practices for Engaging with Disadvantaged Communities on Issues of Sustainable Development and Regional Planning

The African American Agenda: A Path to Transformative Change

Equity in Early Learning Opportunities: Examining the Roles of Place, Space, and Race

Employment Opportunities and Challenges for Lower-Income Older Adults: Opportunity & Mapping Analysis for Baltimore, MD MSA

Black Girls in Franklin County, Ohio: Progress, Power and Possibility

Building Housing and Credit Opportunity for All: A Civil Rights Response to “Reforming America’s Housing Finance Market: A Report to Congress”

Opportunity & Mapping Analysis for White Center, WA

Diversity Strategies for Successful Schools

Quality Matters: Achieving Benefits Associated With Racial Diversity

Opportunity and Location in Federally Subsidized Housing Programs

Bibliographical Guide to Structural Racialization, Implicit Bias, and Systems Thinking

Higher Education and Diversity: Ethical and Practical Responsibility in the Academy

Attaining the American Dream: Racial Differences in the Effects of Pell Grants on Students’ Persistence and Educational Outcomes”

Detroit Civic Engagement Fellows: Site Visit Workbooklet

Beyond the Quick Fix: ARRA Contracting, Jobs, and Building a Fair Recovery for Florida

ARRA and The Economic Crisis: One Year Later

An Ethnographic View of Impact: Asset Stripping for People of Color

What is a Bank Robber?

Bending Toward Justice: An Empirical Study of Foreclosures in One Neighborhood Three Years After Impact and a Proposed Framework for a Better Community

Access to Consumer Credit Post Foreclosure

The Consumer Financial Protection Agency: Key to Safety and Soundness and Consumer Protection

Credit and Lending in Communities of Color

Does Discretionary Pricing Mean Discriminatory Pricing?

Extending Credit to Marginalized Communities

Fannie, Freddie, and the Future of Fair Housing

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: How Can We Increase Their Support of the Mortgage Market?

Breaking the Bank / (Re)Making the Bank: America’s Financial Crisis and the Implications for Sustainable Advocacy for Fair Credit and Fair Banking

Mortgage Lending and Foreclosures in Immigrant Communities: Expanding Fair Housing and Fair Lending Opportunity Among Low Income and Undocumented Immigrants

Furthering Fair Housing, the Housing Finance System, and the Government Sponsored Enterprises

Race-Recovery Index: Is Stimulus Helping Communities in Crisis?

Rethinking Value: The need for a new conceptualization of value in the context of blighted, urban neighborhoods recovering from the foreclosure crisis and decades of neglect

Subprime Lending in the City of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County

Understanding the Subprime Crisis: Institutional Evolution and Theoretical Views

Fair Credit and Fair Housing in the Wake of the Subprime Lending and Foreclosure Crisis: Findings from the Kirwan Institute Initiative

No Home in Indian Country

Montclair Public Schools: Focus Groups

Race-Recovery Index: Is Stimulus Helping Communities in Crisis?

Targeted Universalism and the Jobs Bill: Helping Communities in Crisis Through Targeted Investments

The State of Black Ohio: At a Crossroads on the Pathway to Opportunity

Health Insurance Only Partial Solution to Racial Health Disparities

The Geography of Opportunity: Mapping to Promote Equitable Community Development and Fair Housing in King County, WA

Race-Recovery Index: Is Stimulus Helping Communities in Crisis?

Shining the Light: Revealing our Choice

Shining the Light: A Practical Guide to Co-Creating Healthy Communities

Guide to Community Workforce Agreements

Race-Recovery Index: Is Stimulus Helping Communities in Crisis?

Recovering From Crisis: A Review of the Neighborhood Stabilization Program in Florida’s Economic Recovery

Unemployment Insurance, the Recession, and Race

Race-Recovery Index: Is Stimulus Helping Communities in Crisis?

School Integration Framing & Messaging: Toward a Transformative Conversation

Shining the Light: Revealing Our Choice in the St. Cloud Region

Affirmative Action in Ohio: A Resource for Policymakers and Advocates

Where’s The Stimulus? State and Regional Profiles of the Recovery Act Investment in New York State

Recommendations for Assuring Robust Civic Engagement & Equity in Detroit’s Shrinking City Planning Effort

Opportunity Communities: A Pathway to Sustainable and Livable Communities

Implicit Bias

Defining Implicit Bias

Also known as implicit social cognition, implicit bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner.  These biases, which encompass both favorable and unfavorable assessments, are activated involuntarily and without an individual’s awareness or intentional control.  Residing deep in the subconscious, these biases are different from known biases that individuals may choose to conceal for the purposes of social and/or political correctness.  Rather, implicit biases are not accessible through introspection.

The implicit associations we harbor in our subconscious cause us to have feelings and attitudes about other people based on characteristics such as race, ethnicity, age, and appearance.  These associations develop over the course of a lifetime beginning at a very early age through exposure to direct and indirect messages.  In addition to early life experiences, the media and news programming are often-cited origins of implicit associations.

A Few Key Characteristics of Implicit Biases

  • Implicit biases are pervasive.  Everyone possesses them, even people with avowed commitments to impartiality such as judges.
  • Implicit and explicit biases are related but distinct mental constructs.  They are not mutually exclusive and may even reinforce each other.
  • The implicit associations we hold do not necessarily align with our declared beliefs or even reflect stances we would explicitly endorse.
  • We generally tend to hold implicit biases that favor our own ingroup, though research has shown that we can still hold implicit biases against our ingroup.
  • Implicit biases are malleable.  Our brains are incredibly complex, and the implicit associations that we have formed can be gradually unlearned through a variety of debiasing techniques.

Kirwan in the News

Request an Implicit Bias Session from the Kirwan Institute


Latest Review


State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2016

The Kirwan Institute is excited to publish the fourth edition of its annual State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review to deepen public awareness of implicit biases and the challenges they pose to a society that strives to treat all of its members equally. Research from the neuro-, social and cognitive sciences show that hidden biases are distressingly pervasive, that they operate largely under the scope of human consciousness, and that they influence the ways in which we see and treat others, even when we are determined to be fair and objective.

This important body of research has enormous potential for helping to reduce unwanted disparities in every realm of human lifeLearn More…

Implicit Racial Bias in Education Introduction

Understanding racialized discipline disparities in K–12 public education, is crucial, as students who are “pushed out” of the classroom are denied educational opportunities. This research seeks to shed light on racialized discipline disparities and disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline by focusing specifically on implicit racial bias as a contributing factor to persistent discipline disproportionalities in schools.

Materials on this page highlight the relationship between implicit racial bias and school discipline. Included among the materials are documents that shed light on discipline disparities in Ohio, documents that explain how implicit racial bias can operate in the education domain and influence school discipline, a national scan of successful intervention strategies, issue briefs, a communications and social media toolkit, and other materials. We encourage you to share this content widely. Learn More…

Brain science has documented the unconscious human cognitive processes that can manifest in unwitting and unwanted racialized behaviors and decision-making. Kirwan’s implicit bias work has been especially robust over the last 12 months.

  • Publication disseminated nationwide. The Kirwan Institute’s most visible and impactful contribution to the field of implicit bias in 2013 was the publication of its State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review. Designed as an annual publication, this research review expanded knowledge about the cognitive forces that can unconsciously influence individual behavior and contribute to societal inequities. The 102-page inaugural edition of the State of the Science provided an in-depth summary of implicit racial bias and how it functions. In addition, the publication included three chapters examining how implicit bias operates in the domains of education, criminal justice, and health/health care.
  • Implicit Bias presentations. The release of this publication led to several presentation opportunities for Kirwan staff members and additional written articles on the role of implicit bias in light of the Zimmerman verdict in Florida.

Opportunity Communities

Building Communities of Opportunity

Kirwan is a national leader in work that promotes equitable planning and development policy. The Institute will continue to provide direct technical assistance to communities that seek to implement equitable revitalization strategies in segregated, high poverty neighborhoods through targeted investment and robust community engagement.

Supporting Opportunity/Asset Mapping & Data Driven Equity Initiatives

As a national leader in using data-driven tools and mapping to guide equity efforts, Kirwan actively supports data-informed equity and engagement initiatives in regions and municipalities located across the nation. This ongoing capacity building work is essential to creating Opportunity Communities, and the Institute will continue to partner with peer data and mapping organizations to promote this field development.

Kirwan in the News

Sustainable Communities Initiatives

In June 2010, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT), released a Notice of Funding Availability for a Regional Planning for Sustainable Development grant. These HUD sustainability grants represent an unprecedented infusion of federal support for regional planning that integrates housing and transportation decisions, and increases state, regional, and local capacity to incorporate livability, sustainability, and social equity values into land use plans and zoning. One hallmark of these grants is the requirement that consortiums increase participation and decision-making of populations traditionally marginalized in public planning processes in developing and implementing a long-range vision for the region.

The Kirwan Institute is deeply engaged in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Sustainable Communities Initiative (SCI).  The Institute has advised HUD on the program and is working with Sustainable Communities grantees in several regions.

Sustainable Communities Initiative Briefs & Guides


Place Matters: Using Mapping to Plan for Opportunity, Equity, and Sustainability

For most of us, the neighborhood is our “ecosystem,” a place that can either provide the opportunities we need to grow or stifle our potential. We generally know an opportunity-rich neighborhood when we see one: a place that provides access to quality schools, healthy food and recreational options, stable and supportive housing, sustainable employment, and strong social networks…


For the 143 communities and regions engaged in planning for a prosperous future, the Sustainable Communities Initiative is a game-changing opportunity. In the same spirit of the interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities which forged new ways of doing business across HUD, DOT, and EPA, this program is poised to catalyze new networks of relationships, new problem-solving methods, and new, inclusive decision-making tables. By bringing together diverse and disparate interests while developing new leaders, Sustainable Communities is seeding an opportunity for regions and communities to craft an authentic vision for an equitable and prosperous future. As community members set joint tables with advocacy groups, planners, business leaders, policymakers, local development organizations, universities, and foundations to develop a blueprint for future prosperity, a shared vision will only materialize if the residents of historically marginalized communities see themselves as full partners. That entails having a voice and decision-making input to own the change they want to see.

sciDownload or View Report

The Fair Housing and Equity Assessment (FHEA) provides an opportunity for diverse stakeholders in a region to develop a shared picture of the housing and infrastructure dynamics that enhance or limit opportunity — and to develop forward-looking strategies and partnerships that can address some of the region’s greatest challenges.1 Through this ‘21st century orientation to fair housing’ — a candid and broadly shared assessment of residential opportunity — municipalities and regional entities can identify objectives and priorities for future investments to enhance equity and access to opportunity and address the needs of communities facing the greatest challenges…

Kirwan’s Impact on HUD’s Sustainable Communities Initiative

Provided Analysis to Aid Equity Issues in Puget Sound, WA

The Institute provided analysis and assistance with the region’s opportunity mapping activities to aid equity issues in the development of a regional sustainable development plan. This work prompted housing authorities for Seattle, Tacoma and King County to consider opportunity maps for ways to improve their voucher programs – for example, by increasing voucher rates in high opportunity areas or making ...

Fair Housing Assessment for Austin, TX

This work is a collaborative effort between Green Doors, an Austin nonprofit to house the homeless, and the Institute. The work is also driven by a committee of other partners, including The City of Austin, Travis County, The Housing Authorities of the City of Austin and Travis County, and The Capital Area Council of Governments (CAPCOG), whose participation as a Sustainable Communities Initiative (SCI) grantee will pull ...

Equity Assessment for Lakota tribe in Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

The Institute is working together with PolicyLink to provide mapping support for an equity assessment, to be used by the Lakota tribe to apply for HUD funding for reservation housing. We are also providing expert advice as the tribe establishes a regional planning office. Independent of the equity assessment work, the Institute has also offered to provide GIS support to the tribe’s land office ...

Houston-Galveston Fair Housing Assessment

The Institute is working in collaboration with H-GAC to facilitate an opportunity mapping initiative in the 13-county Texas Gulf Coast planning region to inform the region’s Fair Housing Equity Assessment (FHEA). At 12,500 square miles, the H-GAC service area is larger than 9 other states’ total areas and poses a challenge for opportunity mapping, both in scale and in geographic and economic diversity. For this ...

Sustainable Communities Initiative Partners

PolicyLink is a national research and action institute advancing economic and social equity by Lifting Up What Works.®

Founded in 1999, PolicyLink connects the work of people on the ground to the creation of sustainable communities of opportunity that allow everyone to participate and prosper. Such communities offer access to quality jobs, affordable housing, good schools, transportation, and the benefits of healthy food and physical activity.

Learn more…

Puget Sound Regional Council’s mission is to ensure a thriving central Puget Sound now and into the future through planning for regional transportation, growth management and economic development.

PSRC works with local government, business and citizens to build a common vision for the region’s future, expressed through three connected major activities: VISION 2040, the region’s growth strategy; Transportation 2040, the region’s long-range transportation plan; and Prosperity Partnership, which develops and advances the region’s economic strategy.

Learn More…

One day, all Central Texas families and individuals will have the opportunity to live in affordable, safe, quality housing.

Green Doors’ mission is to prevent and help end homelessness and poverty housing for those working to achieve independent living in Central Texas.

Green Doors accomplishes this by: creating affordable, safe, quality housing; providing residents with access to supportive services; and educating about, and advocating for, individuals and families struggling with homelessness and at-risk for homelessness.

Learn More…

The Capital Area Council of Governments (CAPCOG) is a voluntary association including over 90 member governments, cities and counties as well as school districts, chambers of commerce, non-profit agencies, and any organization that has an interest in regionalism.  CAPCOG was established in 1970 under Chapter 391, Local Government Code, and is one of 24 COGS in the State of Texas.

Learn More…

Gulf Regional Planning Commission (GRPC) has been  providing general planning support to fourteen member jurisdictions, which  include Gulfport, Biloxi, Waveland, Bay St. Louis, Pass Christian, Long Beach, Ocean Springs, D’Iberville, Gautier, Pascagoula, Moss Point as well as Hancock, Harrison and Jackson counties, and we are soon to welcome Diamondhead as an official member.

Learn More…


I Am My Brother’s Keeper


Like the nation, Franklin County and the Columbus community have struggled to expand and secure pathways to opportunity for African American men and boys. Our community reflects the many systemic and structural challenges facing the African American community nationwide.

Targeted investments connecting young African American men and boys with pathways to opportunity can equip them with the tools needed to strive for more than just survival on the city’s Southside.

Such investments will empower them to lead engaged and fully participatory lives as equal citizens, with improved consequences for themselves, their families, their communities and the Columbus, Ohio region. Learn More…

The Kirwan Institute is a research and editorial partner in The United Way of Central Ohio’s Champion of Children report. It investigates the health and well-being of our community’s children by providing a window into the conditions of Franklin County children, reflecting the many assets and opportunities that enable children to thrive, as well as illuminating the challenges that can limit a child’s growth and development. ×

2016 Champion of Children Report


The 2016 Champion of Children report explores the differential outcomes for Latino males in our educational system to better understand why Latino males are “vanishing from higher education.”

2015 Champion of Children Report

UWO-023-ChampionOfChildrenReport.FALR3_ copy

The 2015 Champion of Children Report documents the many challenges facing our young boys of color, challenges that if left unaddressed, imperil their successful entry into adulthood and their ability to be flourishing, productive members of our community.

2014 Champion of Children Report


The 2014 Champion of Children Report focuses on how childhood trauma and stress can be corrosive and damaging to childhood development and success for children in poverty. This can mean lives consumed by stress, anxiety and insecurity, passing from one generation to the next.

“The U.S. child population is increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, but unfortunately not all children have the same opportunities for healthy development,” said Dolores Acevado-Garcia, Director of ICYPF and principal investigator of “We hope that our data will equip users to become more informed advocates for all children and especially for vulnerable children.”×



With the help of The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity, The Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy (ICYPF) at Brandeis University’s Heller School for Social Policy and Management has launched today a new online data and analysis tool——providing unprecedented insight into wellbeing and equity among the ever more diverse child population in the United States.

The website and its online tools were created with generous funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and will help users pinpoint inequities that exist among children of varying racial and ethnic groups that threaten wellbeing. The website also allows users to create customized profiles, rankings and maps of childhood wellbeing in their own communities, translating demographic data into more visual and understandable formats. Users can zoom from a national and statewide perspective, to smaller levels of geography, including individual metropolitan areas, school districts and, in some cases, neighborhoods. Most importantly, the site makes available to the public for the first time unique region-specific data that, highlight known structural factors that research has shown to catalyze racial and ethnic disparities.

Learn more…

Food Mapping Project


In June 2013, The Ohio State University Food Innovation Center awarded an Innovation Initiative to the Mapping the Food Environment project.

The objectives of this research initiative were:

  1. To develop a comprehensive, user-friendly food access data hub to facilitate research and collaboration for food mapping-related research to enhance productivity and maximize community benefit;
  2. To integrate secondary and primary data sets related to food security, food access, food production, health, community assets, sociodemographic variables, and food affordability for use in translational outcomes-based research;
  3. To integrate and enhance the existing mapping and modeling methodologies that have been developed by team members, and test and improve food environment indicators for use in evaluating policy interventions. Results of this project will provide the infrastructure and preliminary data and results for grant proposals to USDA, CDC, and health-oriented foundations (e.g., Robert Wood Johnson).

Kirwan is a proud partner in this work and its impact on scholarship, teaching, community engagement, and the student experience. Learn more…

Food Mapping Team-related publications

Mapping the cost of a balanced diet, as a function of travel time and food price

Kirwan Authors: Christy Rogers and Jason Reece
Authors: N. Hilbert, Jennifer Evans-Cowley, Wendy Ake, and Casey Hoy

The Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems and Community Development 5(1):1-23.


Alternative Agrifood Projects in Communities of Color: A Civic Engagement Perspective
Kirwan Authors: Glennon Sweeney, Kareem Usher, Kip Holley, and Christy Rogers
Authors: Casey Hoy, Jill Clark, and Colleen Spees

(submitted to Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development Call for Commentaries on Race and Ethnicity in Food Systems Work).


Finding Our Compass: The Process of Building our Community-University Food Mapping Team
Kirwan Authors: Christy Rogers
Authors: Michelle Kaiser, Michelle Hand, Casey Hoy, and Nick Stanich

(under review, Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship).

The State of Food Mapping: Academic Literature since 2008 and Review of On-Line GIS-Based Food Mapping Resources
Kirwan Authors: Glennon Sweeney and Christy Rogers
Authors: Michelle Hand, Michelle Kaiser, Jill Clark, and Colleen Spees

(forthcoming, Journal of Planning Literature)


Community-University Engagement via a Boundary Object: The Case of Food Mapping in Columbus, Ohio
Kirwan Authors: Christy Rogers
Authors: Jill Clark, Michelle Kaiser, Richard Hicks, Casey Hoy, and Colleen Spees

(forthcoming, Journal of Public Scholarship in Higher Education).

Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas. The purpose of opportunity mapping is to illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities) and to understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities. Opportunity mapping builds upon the rich history of using neighborhood based information and mapping to understand the challenges impacting our neighborhoods.

Why map neighborhood conditions?

An extensive body of research has established that neighborhood conditions and proximity to opportunities such as high performing education or sustainable employment have a critical impact on quality of life and self advancement. The central premise of opportunity mapping is that residents of a metropolitan area are situated within an interconnected web of opportunities that shape their quality of life. Opportunity mapping provides an analytical framework to measure opportunity comprehensively in metropolitan regions and determine who has access to opportunity rich areas. Opportunity mapping also provides a framework to assess what factors are limiting opportunity in a community and can assist in identifying what measures are needed to remedy these impediments to opportunity.

Understanding “Neighborhood Effect”: Nearly fifty years of research literature has established the importance of neighborhoods or “place” on people. The Kirwan Institute continually tracks this research and keeps an updated annotated bibliography of relevant research literature. Follow this link to access the annotated bibliography. For more information about our on-going research on neighborhood effect please contact Christy Rogers.

Building Healthy Communities of Opportunity

Health is more than health care. It not only reflects personal choices about healthy habits, or access to primary care, but is significantly impacted by where one lives. Social factors like poverty, unemployment, housing, education, and the food system collectively exert an equally important, maybe even greater, impact on health…More

Major Opportunity Mapping Initiatives


This Prezi provides an introductory overview of The Kirwan Institute’s Opportunity Mapping work. It presents the Opportunity model in three phases: theory & research foundations, data & methodology, and lessons learned & innovations. Please contact us for more information about how community engagement and mapping is being used to expand opportunity for all.

Public Health

Supporting Health Equity through Place-Based Initiatives

In an area of rapid growth for the Kirwan Institute, we have forged new partnerships with experts in the fields of medicine and public health to promote community- and place-based efforts to improve health and health outcomes.

Our work has produced critical lessons in bridging research, advocacy and policy change, including connecting with local leadership, building capacity, and creating the conditions for sustainable implementation. In 2012, Executive Director Sharon Davies launched the health equity program. Building upon our experience in systems theory, mapping and place-based interventions, we partner with government agencies, organizations and individuals both locally and nationally to support equitable health policy and practice.

Kirwan will continue to expand on this work to help educate the public, practitioners, community organizers and policymakers about the central role that regional and community development policies and fair and stable housing polices can play in addressing deep, structural health inequalities.

Kirwan in the News


Education is one of the most important conduits of opportunity, and perhaps the most significant force influencing a person’s life chances. Given the centrality of education to opportunity, social mobility and democratic values, public debates continue to spotlight the inadequacies and role of public education. The Kirwan Institute is committed to creating a more just and equitable society through the establishment of equitable education for all. The Institute is engaged in a number of initiatives to address this topic, dealing with issues ranging from school discipline to admissions policies to student assignment plans and curricula.

Implicit Racial Bias in Education Introduction

Understanding racialized discipline disparities in K–12 public education, is crucial, as students who are “pushed out” of the classroom are denied educational opportunities. This research seeks to shed light on racialized discipline disparities and disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline by focusing specifically on implicit racial bias as a contributing factor to persistent discipline disproportionalities in schools.

Materials on this page highlight the relationship between implicit racial bias and school discipline. Included among the materials are documents that shed light on discipline disparities in Ohio, documents that explain how implicit racial bias can operate in the education domain and influence school discipline, a national scan of successful intervention strategies, issue briefs, a communications and social media toolkit, and other materials. We encourage you to share this content widely. Learn More…